Craniofacial Surgery 9
Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of the International
Society of Craniofacial Surgery
Visby, Gotland, Sweden, 2001
It was very rainy. But there were surgeons and
craniofacial teammates from 37 countries gathering in Visby on the island
of Gotland in the Baltic Sea to get together to present, discuss and
listen to new developments in craniofacial surgery.
The biennial congress arranged by the president of the
International Society of Craniofacial Surgery has matured into becoming
the one event the active craniofacial surgeon must attend. This is where
new ideas are presented. This is where serious warnings can be heard. This
is where you have to be. This meeting is now an institution.
It has been an overwhelming honor to be elected the
president of this group of probably some of the best surgeons in the
world. So what does that make me? – It makes me grateful and humble. It
also brings very vividly to my mind the start, when my mentor and chief
Bengt Johanson urged me to plunge into this new field of surgery. Bengt´s
deep friendship with Paul Tessier gave him a direct insight in what was
going on and Bengt saw the possibilities and he created the craniofacial
unit at the Sahlgrenska Hospital in Göteborg. We worked very hard. Bengt
was determined to shape me into a surgeon who could indulge in this new
field of reconstructive surgery and he gave me all the support I needed.
Bengt has since he retired from active surgery been my most foremost
supporter. Bengt is one of the giants in plastic surgery. His support for
me personally is however not at all just about me, it is much more about
my persuing the fine art of craniofacial surgery, that he brought to
Sweden. He had a vision and he has been fortunate enough to see it become
reality. By the ISCFS having its first biennial meeting of the new
millennium in Sweden, Bengt knows his tuition and mentorship was not in
In looking back I can not omit to mention Ian Munro, my
boss 1981-82 and who is now sailing the oceans on his catamaran. Ian
taught me that "survival of the fittest" was rule number one in the OR. He
was adamant that speed was essential in surgery and I agree. I owe Ian a
great deal. Speed is essential because operative time must me reduced in
order to have saved enough energy for the final touches that are so
essential in craniofacial surgery. Thank you Ian.
In my invitation to this congress I set the theme "smaller
surgery" and several examples of innovations along that theme were
presented. Some of these can be reviewed in this book. No doubt tissue
distraction is essential in context. Tissue distraction does not mean bone
elongation only. Our own work with implantable springs gradually reshaping
skulls certainly is not DOG (distraction osteoneogenesis) but has opened
new avenues of accomplishing big surgery with minimal means, if you will.
Springs in craniofacial surgery did attract considerable attention during
the meeting and we expect to see much more of this in the future.
Impressive research results were also presented
indicating among many other interesting things that the cause of premature
synostoses can be looked for in the chemistry of the dura mater underneath
the synostosed suture.
In this book many of the best contributions from the
Visby meeting are presented, for you to bring to the armchair or to think
about when you go to bed. Do it! Go on, elaborate on these ideas. Let us
hear about what you have come up with next time in 2003 when we meet again.
Göteborg in October 2001
A Model for the Development and
Delivery of Craniofacial Health Care Systems in Developing Countries
Orbival Volume in Craniosynostosis
R. Bentley, S.
Sgouros, K. Natarajan, H. Nishikawa, S. Dover and A. Hockley
The Application of Intraoperative Anthropometry in
the Assessment and Surgical Correction of Craniosynostotic Deformities
R. Burvin, G.
Rogers, M. Proctor and J. Mulliken
Strip Craniectomy for Scaphocephaly. A Long Term
N. CAPON-DEGARDIN, P. PELLERIN, M. JESSUS,
V. MARTINOT-DUQUENNOY and P. DHELEMMES
Presence of Orbital Dystopia in Unicoronal
K. Dickinson, J.
Neil-Dwyer, K. Chong and K.K. Nischal
The Use of Recombinant Erythropoietin in the
Reduction of Blood Transfusion Rates in Craniosynostosis Repair in Infants
J.A. Fearon and
Comparison of Bioresorbable Versus Titanium Fixation
in Pediatric Craniosynostosis Surgery
C. Forrest, D.
Grace, J. Rutka, J. Drake, P. Dirks and R. Humphreys
Oblique Vertical Optokinetic Nystagmus in Patients
with Craniosynostosis _ A New Finding
S. Garbutt, K.K.
Nischal1, F. Barampouti1, W. Aclimandos and B.M. Jones
Scaphocephaly and Mental Development _ Outcome of
F. GEWALLI, J. GUIMARÃES-FERREIRA, P. SAHLIN, I. EMANUELSSON,
G. HORNEMAN and C. LAURITZEN
What Is the Natural History of Raised Intracranial
Pressure Complicating Syndromic Craniosynostosis?
R. Hayward, K.
Nischal, D. Thompson, D. Dunaway, R. Evans and B. Jones
Distraction for Cranial Remodeling in
Craniosynostosis; New Divice and Osteotomy Line
K. IMAI, H. KOMUNE, C. TODA, T. NOMACHI, T. FUJIMOTO, H. SAKAMOTO, S.
KITANO and M. HATOKO
Documentation of Craniosynostosis Using a
T.H. Jünger, T.
Posselt, D. Steinberger, H. Collmann, B. Kotrikova,
J. Zöller and H.-P. Howaldt
Assessment of Postoperative Cranial
Vault Growth In Syndromal Synostoses
Kolar, K.E. Salyer and A. Yamada
Problems with Secondary Corrections for
Craniosynostosis in Adolescents
D. Marchac, D.
Renier and E. Arnaud
Preliminary Resultw and New Treatment Protocol for
Cranial Banding Following Endoscopic-Assisted Craniectomy for Sagittal
S.P. Beals, E.F. Joganic, S.D. Moss, K.M. Kelly and T.R. Littlefield
Intracranial Remodeling for Syndromal
Craniosynostosis: 12 Year Experience
J.C. Kolar, A. Yamada, D.G. Genecov, D.A. Bruce and K. Shapiro
Combined Sagittal and Bilambdoid Synostosis _
Craniodyssynostosis to Mercedes Benz Syndrome
and R.R.W.J. van der Hulst
Research and diagnostics
Haptic Exploration and Modeling in the Planning of
and T. McInerney
Long Term Developmental Outcome in Children with
L. Argenta, L.
David, D. Goldstein and P. Kilgo
Force Induced Craniosynostosis Produces Factors that
Affect Suture Morphogenesis
S. Buchman, S.
Rhee, M. Ignelzi, J. Tabaos and S. Goldstein
Regional Dura Mater Differentially Regulates
Osteoblast Gene Expression in an In Vitro Co-culture Model
F. Crisera, S.
Warren, J. Greenwald, J. Spector, Z. Peled, P. Bouletreau and M. Longaker
In Vitro "Cleft Palate" Model with Mesenchymal
S. Erfani, C.
Crisera, T. Maldonado, S. Warren, P. Bouletreau, Z. Peled and M. Longaker
Immavure Dura Mater Paracrine Signaling Increases
Osteoblast Proliferation and Dif-ferentiation
P. Fagenholz, J.
Spector, J. Greenwald, S. Warren, R. Detch, B. Mehrara and M. Longaker
Norian CRS Compatibility with Bioresorbable Plating
Materials _ An Animal Model, An Interim Report
D. Genecov, M.
Kremer, L. Opperman, R. Agarwal and K. Salyer
Regional Dura Mater Determines Fate of Overlying
J. Greenwald, B.
Mehrara, J. Spector, S. Warren, F. Crisera, P. Fagenholz, P. Bouletreau
and M. Longaker
In Vivo Modification of FGF-biologic Activity Alters
Cranial Suture Fate
J. Greenwald, B. Mehrara, J. Spector, S. Warren, P. Fagenholz, L. Smith,
P. Bouletreau, F. Crisera and H. Ueno
Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms Governing
B. Mehrara, S.
Warren, P. Bouletreau, M. Paccione and M. Longaker
Development of Cytoprotective Strategies for the
Prevention of Radiation Induced Craniofacial Bone Growth Inhibition in an
Infant Rabbit Model
D. O'Donovan, G.
LeScala, I. Yeung, V. Zeman, M. Mendes, I. Leong, K.P.H. Pritzker, C.Y.
Pang, P. Neligan and C.R. Forrest
Endogenous Cytokine Levels As a
Function of Gestational Age in Fetal Rat Fibroblasts: Implications for
Scarless Cleft Lip/Palate Repair
G. Chin, M. Hsu, W. Liu, H. Levinson, S. Lee and M. Longaker
Reconstruction of Craniofacial Defects with
Bone-Marrow-Coated Polycaprolactone Scaffolds
D. Rohner, D.W.
Hutmacher, P. See, K.C. Tan, V. Yeow, S.Y. Tan, S.T. Lee and B. Hammer
A Novel Model of Mouse Mandibular Osteotomy Healing
P. Saadeh, M.
Paccione, S. Warren, P. Bouletreau and M. Longaker
Psychological Functioning of Adolescents Born with
D. Sarwer, L.
Whitaker and S. Bartlett
The Autocrine and Paracrine Effects of FGF-2 on Dura
Mater: Implications for Calvarial Growth and Re-ossification
L. Smith, J.
Spector, J. Greenwald, S. Warren, P. Bouletreau, R. Detch, P. Fagenholz,
F. Crisera and M. Longaker
Effects of FGF-2 on Osteoblast BMP-2 Expression:
Implications for Mechanism of FGF Receptor-Mediated Craniosynostosis
J. Spector, S.
Warren, J. Greenwald, S. Erfani, P. Bouletreau, F. Crisera and M. Longaker
Noggin Expression Maintains Cranial Suture Patency
S. Warren, J.
Greenwald, P. Bouletreau, J. Spector, R. Harland and M. Longaker
The Role of Twinning in the Aetiology of Hemifacial
The Identification of Calcium Oscillators in
Immature Rat Cranial Sutures
J.C. Yu, J.P.
Braselton, M.L. Abell and J.L. Borke
Bifocal Distraction Osteogenesis: A New Method to
Heal Adult Calvarial Defects
S. Warren, M. Paccione, J. Spector, J. McCarthy and M. Longaker
Internal Craniofacial Distraction with Biodegradable
S.R. Cohen and
Dynaoic Spring Mediated Cranioplasty in a Rabbit
L. David, J.
Guimaraes-Ferreira, F. Gewalli, C. Sanger and L. Argenta
Distraction of the Orbit in a Tessier IV Facial
Cleft: Case Report
R. Giuliani, A.
Bianchi, F. Neri and E. Galliani
Controlled Bone Regeneration in Distraction
Correction of Plagiocephaly by Distraction
Osteogenesis with Floating Bone Flap
T. HONDA, S.
KOBAYASHI, M. HAYASHI and K. KASHIWA
Three Years Experience with Implantable Springs in
C. Lauritzen, J.
Guimarães-Ferreira, F. Gewalli, R. Olsson, L. David and P. Tarnow
Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis: A Review of
M. Mofid, P.
Manson, B. Robertson, A. Tufaro, J. Elias and C. Vander Kolk
Latency, Rate, and Rhythm Determine the Adaptive
Response in a Rat Model of Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis
M. Paccione, S.
Warren, B. Mehrara, P. Bouletreau and M. Longaker
Experience with a New FDA Approved Cranial Orthosis:
R.J. Wood, E.T.
Elwood and J.A. Petronio
"Cat's Cradle" Midfacial Fixation in Distraction
Osteogenesis following LeFort III Osteotomy
R.J. Havlik and
Semi-rigid Internal Distraction Device for the
LeFort III Advancement: A Case Report
Y. Imai, A.
Yamada and Y. Sugawara
A Seven-Year Expermence of Thirty-two Consecutive
Transcranial Mid-facial Osteotomies
B.M. Jones, J.
Neil-Dwyer, R. Evans, D. Dunaway and R. Hayward
Management of Mandibular Condyle Fracture (Closed
versus Open Approach)
A. Kazemi and A.
Segmental Osteogenic Distraction in Cleft Palate
J. Breuer and H. Sala
In Case of Microsomia _ Conventional Method vs.
Endoscopically Assisted Le Fort I Osteotomy
D. Rohner, V.
Yeow and B. Hammer
N. Strumas, S.
Smith, O. Antonyshyn, J. Fialkov and C. Forrest
Nasal Reconstruction in Hypertelorism _ The Problem
of Blood Supply
Monasterio and F. Molina
Diplopia Following Craniofacial Reconstruction for
B.M. JONES and K.K. NISCHAL
Tumours and facial reconstruction
Nasal Reconstruction of Complex Facial Clefts. Age
Versus Type of Reconstruction
N. Alonso, R.
Freitas and D. Goldenberg
Reconstruction of Lateral Nasal Proboscis with
Heminasal Aplasia _ A Case Report
Optic Nerve Decompression During Surgery For Frontal,
Ethmoidal, Orbital or Maxillary Fibrous Dysplasia
D. Bruce, J.
Fearon, K. Salyer, K. Shapiro and D. Swift
Use of Hydroxyapatite (HA) Cement in Reconstruction
of Complex Congenital and Acquired Cranial Vault Deformities
M. Cohen, R.
Humphreys, P. Dirks, J. Rutka, J. Drake and C. Forrest
Outcome Following Early Surgical Intervention in the
Treatment of Pediatric Orbital Floor Trapdoor Fractures
C. Forrest, N.
de Kleer, S. Blaser and R. Buncic
Lacrimal Gland Adenosquamous Carcinoma: An Unusual
Case of Proptosis in a 6 Year Old Boy
C. Forrest, A.
Mihailovic, R. Buncic, J. Drake, J. Thorner and M. Greenberg
A One Year Study of Hydroxyapatite
Derivatives in Reconstruction of Cranial Defects: Bioengineering Implants
to Optimize Bone Replacement
Gosain, L. Song, P. Riordan, M.T. Amarante, B. Kalantarian, P.G. Nagy,
C.R. Wilson, J.M. Toth, L.C. Chow and B. McIntyre
Reconstruction of Complex Orbito-Cranial Deformities:
The Role of Bioresorbable Mesh
S.R. Cohen, H.K. Meltzer and D.O. Kikkawa
A One Year Study of Hydroxyapatite Derivatives in
Facial Skeletal Augmentation: Autogenous Bone Graft Versus Biomaterials to
Depository Versus Resorptive Recipient Sites
L. Song, P.A. Riordan, M.T. Amarante, P.G. Nagy, C. R. Wilson, J.M. Toth,
L.C. Chow, B.L. McIntyre and A.K. Gosain
Simultaneous Surgical Treatment of Anterior Skull
Base Fracture and Associated FrontoOrbital Fractures
and A. Tavassoli_Ashrafi
Vascularized Frontal Outer Table Flap for the
Anterior Skull Base Tumor Resection
S. Kyutoku, K.
Kawakami, H. Tsuji, M. Kyutoku-Tsujita, A.Tanabe and M. Hihara
Anterior Cranial Base Fibrous Dysplasia and the
Effect on the Optic Nerve Canal and Vision
J.S. Lee, E.
FitzGibbon, J.A. Butman, C.R. Dufresne, S. Wientroub, P.G. Robey and M.T.
An Alternative Dissection Plane for Endoscopic
Assisted Comminuted Malar Fracture Repair
S.-S. Lee, S.-D.
Lin, Y.-T. Chiu, C.-C. Tsai, T.-M. Lin and K.-P. Chang
The Rugose Nose: Clinical and Surgical
and M. Vaandrager
Versatile Peri-orbital Osteotomies with or without
Local Flap Transfer and Midface Distraction
X. Mu and T.
Multimodality Imaging for Precise Localization of
N. Strumas, O.
Antonyshyn, C. Caldwell and J. Mainprize
Nasal Tip Hemangiomas: A New Subunit Approach
B. Zide, S.
Warren and M. Longake