XII World Congress on Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology

February 19-22, 2003,  Hong Kong




The XIIth World Congress on Cardiac Pacing & Electrophysiology is being held in Hong Kong, China from February 19-22, 2003. The World Congress is an international meeting held every four years in different countries. Cardiologists from over 70 countries around the world have attended the World Congress. This meeting opens up the gateway for scientific exchange on cardiac pacing and electrophysiology among the cardiologists from different part of the world. This occasion is also a landmark of this very important World Congress to the next millennium.

In the recent few years, there is a significant progress in the understanding of the molecular and electrophysiological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Furthermore, the clinical applications of cardiac pacing have been expanded using multisite or alternative site pacing for prevention and suppression of cardiac arrhythmias and to the treatment of heart failure. Apart from all these scientific advances, this congress also provides a board and comprehensive teaching courses in cardiac pacing and electrophysiology for general physicians and allied professionals.

The primary aim of this proceeding is to summarize the materials that have been presented in the Congress such that interested individual can obtain in-depth access to the contents of various presentations. It is sincerely hoped that this proceeding will provide a concise overview of the recent updates and practice of cardiac pacing and electrophysiology all over the world, not only for those who have attended the Congress, but also for those who could not make it to Hong Kong this time.

Hung-Fat Tse,
Associate Professor of Medicine

Kathy LF Lee
Honorary Assistant Professor of Medicine

Chu-Pak Lau
Professor of Medicine

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine,
The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong





Catheter Ablation

WPW: State of the Art and Remaining Challenges
D. Todd, G. Klein, M. Gollob, A. Skanes, A. Krahn and R. Yee

Catheter Ablation of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia
R.J. Sung

Changes in Cardiac Chamber Dimensions Following Radiofrequency Ablation
K.M. Smith, J.S. Chana and A.G. Kocheril

Circumferential Pulmonary Vein Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation. The Milan Experience
C. Pappone, G. Vicedomini, G. Augello and S. Rosanio

Noncontact Mapping Guided Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation
Y.-H. Kim

Creation of Circumferential Lesion in the Pulmonary Veins and the Superior Vena Cava Using Ultrasound Energy in Dogs
Y. Okuyama, H.-N. Pak, C. Hata, P. Chen and P.-S. Chen

Pulmonary Vein Angiography and Spike Potential Mapping Guided Ultrasound Ablation in Pulmonary Vein Ostium To Treat Focal Atrial Fibrillation
Caiyi Lu, Changsheng Ma, Yufeng Li, Muyang Yan, Rui Chen, Peng Liu, Yusheng Zhao and Shiwen Wang

Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia
T. Ohe, H. Morita, K. Nakamura, S. Nagase and T. Emori

Advances in the Treatment of ARVD
H. Kasanuki

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: New Mapping and Ablation Strategy
J.W.H. Fung

Complex Radiofrequency Ablations of Supraventricular and Ventricular Arrhythmias
S. Rosenheck, A. Weiss, M. Geist and Z. Sharon

VT Electrical Storm – Ablation vs ICD
D. O’Donnell, M. Cunnington, J. Bourke and S. Furniss

Experience Study of Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in the Porcine  Model of Healed Myocardial Infarction Using Noncontact Endocardial Mapping System
K. Cao, L. Zhu, Q. Shan, J. Zou, M. Chen, B. Yang and C. Chen

Ablation Using Microwave Energy
L.B. Liem

Ultrasound Ablation
N.F. Marrouche, G. Joseph and A. Natale

Non-contact Mapping and Ablation of Double-loop Reentry During Typical Atrial Flutter
C.-T. Tai, T.-Y. Liu, J.-L. Huang, P.-C. Lee, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-S. Chang, Y.-A. Ding and S.-A. Chen

Feasibility and Safety of Linear Microwave Ablation in the Left Atrium
L.B. Liem, M.F. Law, G. Leung, T. Ormsby and G.J. Berry

Real-time Heart Catheter Navigation by 4-D Transesophageal Ultrasonic Imaging
U. Moser, F. Margadant, F. Gattiker and F. Hirt

Application of Noncontact Mapping System in Endocardial Mapping in the Porcine Model of Healed Myocardial Infarction
l. zhu, k. cao, q. shan, j. Zou, M. Chen, B. Yang, C. Chen and W. Li

The Localisa System For Ablation of Atrial Flutter and Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia
M. Duytschaever, V. Firsovaite and R. Tavernier

Surgical Maze Procedures: Is There a Role?
Y. Kosakai and J. Kobayashi

Epicardial Pulmonary Vein Isolation By Cryoablation As Concomitant Cardiac Surgery To Treat Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation "Lavie Technique"
H. Kubota, M. Sato, T. Fujiki, H. Endo, T. Nonaka, Y. Namifusa and K. Sudo

Is Surgical Pulmonary Vein Orifice Isolation Enough For Elimination of Chronic AF?
T. Sueda and K. Imai

Off-pump AF Surgery Using Radiofrequency Energy
Y. Miyagi, T. Nitta, H. Omori, S. Sakamoto, S. Kanno, Y. Ishii and S. Tanaka

Radiofrequency Ablation in Treatment of Atrial Arrhythmias in Valvular Surgery
O. Kalejs, R. Lacis, U. Strazdins, N. Porite, A. Avots, E. Strike and J. Volkolakovs


ICD: Patient Selection
Z. Ren

Quality of Life in Patients with ICD
B. Lüderitz

Triple Chambers ICD
K. Fan

Performance of Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Pulse Generators and Leads: Results from the Multicenter Registry
R. Hauser, D. Hayes, D. Cannom, V. Parsonnet, S. Furman, A. Epstein, S. Vlay, G. Tyers, M. Irwin, A. Almquist, S. Song, J. Hayes and L. Kallinen

Arrhythmia Detection in Dual-chamber ICDs
A. Ripart and R. Nitzsché

Survey Study of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Iran During 2000-2002
K. Behdin and A. Kia

Improvement of ICD Specificity on Atrial Fibrillation by Stability Criteria Enhancement
R. Mletzko, F. Anselme, C. Kouakam, W. Schoels, N. Iscolo, R. Nitzsché, N. Sadoul on behalf of the "slow VT Study" group

Long-term Results of Patients with ICDs and Chronic Chagas Myocardiopathy
O. Greco, A. Cardinalli Neto, M.J.F. Soares, C.A. Santos, A.C. Brandi, J.C.M. Brandi, R.B. Bestetti, A.M. Lorga Filho, D.L. Greco and D.M. Braile

Upward DFT Shift As a Cause of Sudden Death
M. Kroll, J. Brewer and K. Ellenbogen

Evaluation and Treatment of Highly Trained Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death
J. Weinstock, M.S. Link, M.K. Homoud, P.J. Wang and N.A. Mark Estes III

Post SCD Patients: What Have the Post Event Trials Taught Us and What Patients Groups Need Further Study?
S. Ikeguchi

Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy At Risk For SCD: Which Patients Should Be Treated with an ICD?
D.S. Cannom

Sudden Cardiac Death in Nha Trang City, Viet Nam
H.V. Tran, T.N. Nguyen and T.D. Mai

New Advances in Transthoracic Defibrillation
R.E. Kerber

Safety and Effectiveness of A New Automatic External Cardioverter-defibrillator
A. Martínez-Rubio, N. Kanaan, M. Borggrefe, M. Block, M. Mäkijärvi, F. Fedele, C. Pappone, W. Haverkamp, J.L. Merino, G. Barón Esquivias and J. Cinca, for the European Powerheart Investigators

Comparison Between Zoll Biphasic Rectilinear Waveform and Standard Monophasic Waveform in Atrial Fibrillation Transthoracic Electric Cardioversion
M. Santomauro, G. Donnici, L. Ottaviano, A. Borrelli, D. da Prato and M. Chiariello

Methods of Device-Based Atrial Tachyarrhythmia Induction During Implantation of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator with Atrial Therapy
C. Machado, L. Gering, W. Bailey, J. Steinberg, K. Skodacek and K. de Metz

Incidence of Delayed Conversion in Response to Atrial Therapy in a Multi-center Atrial Conversion Therapy ICD Trial
C. Machado, L. Gering, W. Bailey, J. Steinberg, K. Skodacek and K. de Metz

Optimal Initial Energy For Biphasic Shock Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation
N.Y. Chan, N.S. Mok, S.T. Lau and Y.C. Choi

Unique Atrial Lead with Wide Interelectrode Spacing Does Not Compromise Implantable Defibrillator Function
D. Goldman, H. Tidwell and S. Geraci

ECG: Non-Invasive Assessment

New Understanding and Management of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia (POT) Syndrome
H. Abe

Syncope of Unknown Cause: Prognosis and Management
D.G. Benditt and C. Ermis

Myocardial Adrenergic Innervation in Patients with Neurocardiogenic Syncope Measured with 123I-MIBG Uptake
I. Lõrincz, E. Varga, I. Garai, J. Varga, Z. Szabó and L. Galuska

Situational Syncope: Prevalence, Response To Head-up Tilt Testing and Follow-up
D. Leftheriotis, E. Livanis, P. Flevari, G.N. Theodorakis, E. Zarvalis, N. Aggelopoulou and D.Th. Kremastinos

Prognostic Significance of Heart-Rate Turbulence in ICD Patients with DCM
A. Berkowitsch, N. Guettler, T. Neumann, K. Kurzidim, A. Erdogan and H.F. Pitschner

Effect of Static and Dynamic Exercise on Heart Rate Variability
A.E. Aubert, F. Beckers, J. Van Emelen and B. Verheyden

Effect of Posture on Heart Period Signal (HPS) in Healthy Subjects
Y. Niu, H. Ma, Z. Li, Y. Yin and Z. Xie

Correlation of Heart Rate Variability with Clinical Outcome in Severely Asphyxiated Newborns
H. Bada, A. Talati, V. John and A. Patwardhan

Preinfarction Angina Preserves Myocardial Microcirculation and Function after Revascularization
H. Chen, X. Shu, C. Pan and X. Shen

Insertable Loop Recorder In Patients with Palpitation – A New Indication
S. Rosenheck, A. Weiss and Z. Sharon

Multipoles Predict Sudden Cardiac Death After Myocardial Infarction
S. Feldman, M. Lewkowicz, J. Levitan, K. Saermark and P.E. Bloch Thomsen

Atropine Does Not Influence Interatrial Conduction Velocity in Patients with Atrial Arrhythmias
P. Rucinski and A. Kutarski


Ionic Channelopathy in Heart Failure
G.-R. Li, C.-P. Lau and H.-F. Tse

Potassium Channels and Channelopathy
M. Horie, K. Takenaka, T. Ai, T. Haruna, Y. Kono, H. Yoshida, T. Kubota, T. Ninomiya, A. Kobori, S. Ono, S. Makiyama, H. Otani and M. Takano, H. Takaki, S. Kamakura and W. Shimizu

Sudden Infant Death - Sudden Cardiac Death?
J. Skinner

Incidence of Atrial Arrythmias and His Conduction Abnormalities in Brugada Syndrome: The Predictive Risk Factors For Inducible Ventricular Arrhythmias
X. Cai, S. Garrigue, S. Reuter, M. Hocini, P. Jaïs, M. Haissaguerre and J. Clémenty

Atrial Arrhythmia After Cardiac Transplantation – Effects of Surgical Technique
C.W.S. Chan, K. Fan, E. Chau, L. Cheong Cheng, C.S.W. Chiu, W. Kuk Au, A. Yip and W. Hing Chow

Entrainment and Interruption of Atrial Flutter and Atrial Tachycardia
K. Okumura, S. Sasaki, T. Higuma, S. Owada, T. Kobayashi, M. Kimura, K. Ashikaga, A. Iwasa and T. Tsuchiya

Ventricles Excitation Threshold and Operating Field Movements During NTCP
F. Prochaczek, K. Jedrszczak, J. Galecka and A. Kunsdorf-Wnuk

Unusual Aspects and Pitfalls of AV Junctional Tachycardia
D. Wu

Arrhythmias and Sudden Death
C. Berul

Dispersion of Effective Refractory Periods in the Atrium in Patients with Sinus Node Dysfunction
T. Tokano, Y. Nakazato, A. Sasaki, H. Yamashita, Y. Iida, Y. Kawano, Y. Mineda, K. Nakazato, M. Yasuda, M. Sumiyoshi, Y. Nakata and H. Daida

Intracardiac Signal-averaged ECG for Evaluation of Atrial Late Potentials
A. Kutarski, A. Glowniak, D. Szczesniak and P. Rucinski

Does P-wave Duration Reflects Interatrial Conduction Disturbances?
A. Glowniak, A. Kutarski, D. Szczesniak, P. Rucinski and T. Widomska-Czekajska

Change in Surface and Intraatrial Signal-averaged P-wave During Biatrial Pacing
A. Glowniak, A. Kutarski, D. Szczesniak, P. Rucinski and T. Widomska-Czekajska

Mechanisms Responsible for the Initiation and Maintenance of Atrial Fibrillation Assessed by Noncontact Mapping System
S.-W. Rha, Y.-H. Kim, S.W. Park, S.M. Park, J.C. Ahn, D.S. Lim, W.J. Shim, D.J. Oh and Y.M. Ro

Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Maintenance of Atrial Fibrillation
K. Kumagai, H. Nakashima and K. Saku

Internal Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation Using Single Balloon-catheter System
S. Al-Ahmari, H. El-shurafa and A. Al-Khadra

Pulmonary Vein Activity During Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
D. O’Donnell, P. Langley, D. Rainne, J. Bourke and S. Furniss

Rate Adaptation of Action Potential Duration in the Human Right Atrium with Paroxysmal Lone Atrial Fibrillation
Q.J. Shan, Y. Xu, M.L. Chen, B. Yang, C. Chen, J.G. Zou and K.J. Cao

5-HT4 Receptor Blockade and Atrial Electrical Remodeling
G.N. Theodorakis, D. Leftheriotis, E.G. Livanis, D. Poulis, E. Iliodromitis, P. Flevari and D.Th. Kremastinos

Clinical Significance of Atrial Fibrillation Threshold
T. Shirayama, K. Inoue, T. Sakamoto, M. Yamamura, A. Yoshida, H. Mani, T. Sakatani, Y. Matoba, H. Imai and M. Nakagawa

The Effects of the Selective Atrial 5-HT4 Stimulation Before and After 6 Hours of Atrial Fibrillation
G.N. Theodorakis, D. Leftheriotis, E.G. Livanis, D. Poulis, E.K. Iliodromitis, P. Flevari and D.Th. Kremastinos

An Alternative Approach For Sinus Node Recovery Time by Left Atrial Pacing
N.Y. Chan, N.S. Mok, S.T. Lau and Y.C. Choi

Mechanism of Shortening of Atrial Refractory Period After Short Term Rapid Pacing
T. Shirayama, T. Sakamoto, M. Yamamura, A. Yoshida, H. Mani, T. Sakatani, Y. Matoba, H. Imai and M. Nakagawa

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Overload in Postoperative Ventricular Arrhythmia
H. Yamashita, N. Kurebayashi, Y. Nakazato, H. Diada and Y. Ogawa

Entrainment of Activation By Spatio-temporal Distributed Pacing During Ventricular Fibrillation
Y. Gu and A. Patwardhan

A Study on AF Initiation in Sinus Node Dysfunction Using DDD Pacemaker
N.Y. Chan, N.S. Mok, L. Ho, C.W. Wu, W.S. Leung, P.T. Tsui, M.F. Kwok, C.C. Choy, S.T. Lau and Y.C. Choi

A Close-chest Pig Model of Sustained Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia After Myocardial Infarction
l. zhu, k. cao, q. shan, j. Zou, M. Chen, B. Yang, C. Chen, Y. Xu and Y. Xie

Electrophysiologically Guided Pre-operative Amiodarone Therapy in Dor Surgery
J.M. Thomas, M. Seshadri, P. Selvarajan, M. Das, G. Sudarsana and K.A. Abraham

Genetics and Gene Therapy

Cellular and Ionic Mechanisms Underlying the Brugada and Long QT Syndromes
C. Antzelevitch

The Clinical Report On Long QT Syndrome from 46 Chinese Families
C.L. Li, D.Y. Hu, X.G. Qin, Y.T. Li, W.L. Liu, P. Li, Z.M. Li and L. Li

A Novel SCN5A Mutation in a Chinese Brugada Syndrome Family
Chen Zhe Ming, Meng Su Rong and Peng Jian

Clinical Profile and Genetic Basis of Brugada Syndrome in a Chinese Population
N.S. Mok, S.G. Priori, K.K. Chan, H.W. Chan, W.H. Fung, Y.S. Chan, W.K. Chan, C. Lam, N.Y. Chan, H.H. Tsang, A. Ho, C. Napolitano and R. Bloise

Infarct Healing and Remodeling in CX43-Deficient Mice
S. Kanno, T. Betsuyaku, T. Nitta, S. Tanaka, R.B. Schuessler, K.A. Yamada and J.E. Saffitz

Hybrid Therapy

Future of Pacing and Defibrillation in Heart Failure
K. Lee

Mortality Trials Combining the ICD and Resynchronization Therapy: Where Do We Stand?
L. DiCarlo and D.S. Cannom

Does Biventricular Pacing Affect Ventricular Tachycardia/ Ventricular Fibrillation Burden in Heart Failure Patients?
M.H. Schoenfeld

Should We Use an ICD To Deliver Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?
J.C. Spinelli

Use of Antiarrhythmic Drugs After Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation
Ali Oto and Gülcan Abalý

Transverse Conduction Capabilities of the Crista Terminalis in Patients with "Class 1C Atrial Flutter"
K. Fukuzawa, A. Yoshida, Y. Kouhei, M. Kazuo, H. Kitamura, A. Ishida, S. Kubo, T. Takano and M. Yokoyama

Risk Factors for Stroke in Chinese with Atrial Fibrillation: Case-control Study
D.Y. Hu, Y.H. Sun, Z.Q. Zhou and K.B. Li

Clinical Experience of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Capable of Biventricular Pacing in Heart Failure Patients
W.S. Chan, K. Fan, K. Lee, H.F. Tse, C.P. Lau, E. Chau and W.H. Chow

The Long Term Outcome of Heart Failure Patients Implanted with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Incorporated with Biventricular Pacing
W.S. Chan, K. Fan, E. Chau, K. Lee, H.F. Tse, C.P. Lau and W.H. Chow


Choosing the Appropriate Pacing Lead
H.G. Mond

Multisite Atrial and Ventricular Pacing: Is There Additional Benefit?
R. Sutton and T. Salukhe

Clinical Utility of Automatic Capture Algorithms
P.A. Levine

Rate Responsive Pacing
Wei Hua and Xin Chen

Pacing Challenging in Complex Anatomy
M. Munawar

New Indications for Permanent Pacing: Review of Recent Guideline
I. Eli Ovsyshcher and E. Crystal

Pacemaker-based Apnea Management
M.E. Benser, E. Park, G.A. Bornzin and E. Falkenberg

Electrophysiological of Pacemaker Sensation Malfunction and Disposal
J. Yang, J.W Ding, C.H. Zhang, Z.Y. Xi and W.H. Li

Clinical Analysis and Follow-up For 714 Cardiac Pacing
G.X. Qi, B. Yu, H.B. Chen, D.L. Jia, J. Hu and Y.Y. Yu

Sequential Analysis of Pacemaker Diagnostics Improves Patient Management
A. Nash, D.G. Jones, D.A. Todd, P.A.R. Owen and A.J. Marshall

Electrical Performances of a 2 mm2 Steroid Electrode
C. d’Ivernois, J.-L. Bauple, P. Berdagué, N. Kamouche, R. Nitzsché on behalf of the Stelid II Study Group

Update in Mode Selection
L. Kristensen, J.C. Nielsen and H.R. Andersen

Is AAI Pacing Mode Obsolete in All Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome?
Y. Nakazato, A. Sasaki, H. Yamashita, Y. Kawano, Y. Iida, Y. Mineda, K. Nakazato, M. Yasuda, T. Tokano, M. Sumiyoshi, Y. Nakata and H. Daida

Role of Atrial Pacing Sites For Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation
T. Ishikawa

Monitoring of Atrial Fibrillation
R. Mehra

Pacemaker Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation and Tachycardias
S.S. Barold and C.W. Israel

Atrial Tachyarrhythmia Detection Accuracy in Devices with Arrhythmia Therapies
D. Hettrick, M. Young, R. Holbrook, C. Osborne, J. Koehler and J. Kulinski

Impact of Atrial Rhythm Diagnostics on Clinical Management: 18-Month Follow-up
J. Pfeiffer, R. Canby, A. Navone, T. Waller, M. Harsch and M. Mianulli on behalf of AFm Registry Investigators

Alternative Lead Positions in the Right Atrium Are They Reliable – Experiences from the PASTA Trial
S.G. Spitzer, S. Gazarek, P. Wacker, K. Malinowski, V. Schibgilla for the PASTA Trial Group

Bifocal/Biatrial Pacing in Clinical Practice
G.F.O. Tyers, J. Bashir, S. Karim, P. Mills and J. Clark

Impact of Systolic Atrial Function on Atrial Natriuretic Factor During Rapid Atrial Pacing in a Canine Model
I. Zupan, B. Krhin, IP. Zupan and P. Rakovec

Lead Extraction; Choosing the Appropriate Technique
C. Kennergren

Implant of Endocardial Pacemaker and ICD Leads When Subclavian Veins Are Obstructed Or Absent
E. Molina

Experience with Lead Extraction Using Excimer Laser
M.A. Castel, H. Nägele, O. Deutsch, H. Treede and H. Reichenspurner

Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction
G.F.O. Tyers, J. Clark, S. Karim, P. Mills and J. Bashir

Surgical Complications of Pacemaker Implant
G.F.O. Tyers

Submuscular Use of AutoCapture™ Pacing Systems
R.H. Schaerf

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Device Therapy For Congestive Heart Failure: State-Of-The-Art
C.-P. Lau

Technological Evolution of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
B.H. KenKnight and J.C. Spinelli

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Mechanisms and Clinical Results
M.R.S. Hill and K.E. Hilpisch

The Sustained Effect of Biventricular Pacing on Soluble Cellular Adhesion Molecules
P. Flevari, G. Theodorakis, F. Kolokathis, E. Livanis, S. Adamopoulos, C. Kroupis, D. Leftheriotis, A. Koniavitou and D.Th. Kremastinos

Electrocardiographic and Hemodynamic Consequences of Programming the V-V Interval in Biventricular Systems
B. van Gelder, F. Bracke, N. Pijls, A. Jansen, L. Lakerveld and A. Meijer

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy – An Alternative for Treating Heart Failure
P. Brofman, R. Milani, H. Giffhorn, J. Moutinho, M. Guimarães, R. Pontarolli, F. Maia, M. Silva and S. Barberato

Long-term Outcome of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Ventricular Conduction Delay
B. Sun, A. Wang, Y. Zhu, F. Shen, L. Zhang, Y. Zhuang, Q. Wen, W. Jin, J. Zhang, W. Zhuang and J. Xue

Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Upgrade of Conventional Pacemakers To Biventricular Stimulation
H. Nägele, M.A. Castel, O. Deutsch, F.M. Wagner and H. Reichenspurner

Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Biventricular Stimulation in Heart Failure Patients with and without Atrial Fibrillation
M.A. Castel, H. Nägele, O. Deutsch, F.M. Wagner and H. Reichenspurner

Experience with a New Preshaped Over-the-Wire Coronary Sinus Lead
H. Nägele, M.A. Castel, O. Deutsch, F.M. Wagner and H. Reichenspurner

Improved Performance of Over-The-Wire Coronary Sinus Leads Compared To Stylet Driven Leads. Single Center Experience
L. Nguyen, T. Mattioni, D. Riggio, M. Bahu and R. Cataldo

Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Following Biventricular Pacing in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure
M. Seif, T. Al-Ajmi, A. Khokhar, M. Idris and A. Al-Khadra

Accessibility of Desirable Coronary Sinus Tributary Sites in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
L.B. Liem, C.S. Eversull and S.H. Chun

Minimally Invasive Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: An Alternative to the Failed Percutaneous Route
O. Lattouf

Robotically Enhanced Placement of Left-ventricular Epicardial Electrodes
P. Kleine, G. Grönefeld, R.U. Mletzko, S. Dogan, G. Wimmer-Greinecker and A. Moritz


Arrhythmias and Late Sudden Death After Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot
C. Wren

Role of Surgical Revision in Management of Arrhythmias associated with Congenital Heart Disease
B.J. Deal, C. Mavroudis and C.L. Backer

Update in Managing Congenital AV Block
H. McAlister

Comparative Analysis of Modern Electrodes For the Pediatric Cardiac Pacing
O.L. Bockeria

Cooled Tip Ablation of Epicardial Outflow Tract Tachycardia Through the Aortic Sinus of Valsalva

H.F. Pitschner, K. Kurzidim, T. Neumann, Ch. Reiner, M. Kuniss, H. Bahavar, G. Siemon, D. Vukajlovic and J. Sperzel

Supraventricular Tachycardia in Children with Palpitations
J. Villafañe and M. Walls

Decreased Endocardial Lead Survival in Infants
H.M. Spotnitz, M.D. Spotnitz, A.D. Weinberg, R.H. Pass, A.J. Hordof and W.M. Gersony


Update on Antiarrhythmic Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
I. Savelieva and A. John Camm

Azimilide: A Review of Clinical Studies
E. Pritchett

Usefulness of Oral Bepridil for Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Refractory to Class I Drugs
Y. Nakazato, M. Yasuda, A. Sasaki, H. Yamashita, Y. Kawano, Y. Iida, Y. Mineda, K. Nakazato, T. Tokano, M. Sumiyoshi, Y. Nakata and H. Daida

The Effect of Enalaprilat and Losartan in QT Dispersion
P.I. Altieri, N. Escobales, J. Rodríguez Orengo, H. Banchs and M. Crespo


Latest Data From Secondary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Trials
G. Naccarelli and O. Oseroff

Implantable Loop Recorders: Present and Future
R. Moerch Olesen, J. Hansen and P.E. Bloch Thomsen

Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Symptomatic Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia
P. Kasem-Suwan, W. Poomanee and P. Pipatsombat

Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment Using a Minute-ventilation Pacemaker Sensor
A. Ripart, Y. Poezevara, L. Mollo and M. Limousin



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