Current Advances In Hypertension
Proceedings of the 4th Latin American Congress on Hypertension -
Latin American Society of Hypertension
(October 23-27, 2004, Caracas, Venezuela)



Rafael Hernández Hernández, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Pharmacology and Hypertension
Head of Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Hypertension Clinic,
School of Medicine
Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Barquisimeto, Venezuela

María J. Armas-Hernández, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Pharmacology
Associate Physician of Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Hypertension Clinic
School of Medicine
Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Barquisimeto, Venezuela



The chapters of this book constitute written versions of selected faculty invited and voluntary free communication presentations at the Fourth Latin American Congress on Hypertension, organized by the Latin American Society of Hypertension (LASH) in Caracas, Venezuela 23 to 27 October, 2004.
The contents of the present volume reflect some of the most important recent advances in hypertension and related diseases presented from among the most outstanding investigators in the field.
The editors are indebted to all the people and institutions that made these Latin American meeting possible and we would like to transmit our gratefulness to the members of the Congress faculty and free communication presenters who have contributed with each chapter for this publication, and especially to Dr. Agnese Ferrari from Medimond for publishing these proceedings.

Rafael Hernández Hernández
María J. Armas-Hernández





Epidemiology and Public Health in Latin American

The Prevalence of Hypertension in Latin America
M.E. Díaz

Rol de las Organizaciones Cardiovasculares en la Prevención Latinoamericana
B. Finizola

The CARMELA Study: Design and Methodology
R. Hernández-Hernández, H.E. Schargrodsky and CARMELA Committees Members and Special Assessment Group

Clinical Research in Latin America: Challenges and Opportunities
H. Silva, E. Yerli, P. Kleinstiver and R. Rubin


Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Uric Acid Is an Antioxidant: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk
A.J. Reyes


Endothelium and Hypertension

Nitric Oxide in Hypertension: Role of the Gly460 a-Adducin Polymorphism
A.B. Alfieri, A.M Castejon, I.S. Hoffmann, R. García, R. Nuñez-B, C.M. Roa and L.X. Cubeddu

The Role of Endothelins in Hypertension. Facts and Controversies
C. Feldstein and C. Romero

Angiotensin II and Vasopressor Respose to Footshocks
A. Israel, B. Sosa-Canache and I. Medina

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA): Patophysiological Reality or Biological Curiosity
P. López-Jaramillo, R. García and F. Silva 57


Kidney and Hypertension

Inflammation and Renal Disease: the Role of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition
D.G. Vidt

Roadmap Study: Nephroprotection
I. Morr

The Diabetic Hypertensive Patient: Optimizing Renal Protection
D.G. Vidt


Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension

Effects of Age on the Prevalence of the Cardiovascular Dysmetabolic Syndrome
I.S. Hoffmann, R.-B. Nuñez, C.M. Roa, R.S. García, A.B. Alfieri and L.X. Cubeddu

Abdominal Obesity and Low Degree Inflammation in Metabolic Syndrome: Role of Angiotensin II
P. López-Jaramillo, F. Ramírez and G. Marquez


Heart and Vessels in Hypertension

Management of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
L. Olmos and N. Rubio

Antihypertensive Treatment and Carotid Atherosclerosis
R. Hernández-Hernández, M.J. Armas-Hernández and M.C. Armas-Padilla


Hypertension in Women

Preventing Coronary Heart Disease in Women
N. Antepara

Preeclampsia: Different Underlying Causes in Developing and Developed Countries
P. López-Jaramillo and R. García


Clinical Pharmacology Therapeutics

Diuretic in the Arterial Hypertension Treatment
M.C. Armas-Padilla, M.J. Armas-Hernandez and R. Hernández-Hernández

Optimal Use of Diuretics in the Treatment of Hypertension
A.J. Reyes

Potassium-retaining Diuretics: Advances in Aldosterone Antagonism
G. Crippa, A.J. Reyes, W.P. Leary, M.F.C. Maranhão and R. Hernández-Hernández

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Elsy Rodríguez-Roa

Advances in Angiotensin II Receptors Blockers
B. Sosa-Canache, R. Hernández-Hernández and M.J. Armas-Hernández

Vasopeptidase Inhibitors
S.G. Briceño

Use of Calcium Antagonists in Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Hypertensive Patients
R. Cammarata, R. Hernández-Hernández and J. Guerrero

Clinical Trials and Hypertension Management
Lessons Learned from Large Trials in Hypertension
C. Amodeo

Monotherapy of Systemic Arterial Hypertension
L. Rodríguez-Plaza

Antihypertensive Therapy in Non-responder Patients
C. Amodeo, FB. Borelli, MG. Sousa and O. Passarelli Jr

Resistant Hypertension
D.G. Vidt

Management of Hypertensive Crises
C. Feldstein

Optimization and Individualization of Antihypertensive Therapy
G. Crippa, G. Ragni, C. Venturi and E. Arrigoni

Binding Titration in Two Steps of Drugs for Controlling Arterial Hypertension
J. López-Rivera

Management of High-Risk Hypertension
I. Morr


Free Communications

The Published Subanalysis of the SHEP Results Dealing with Uric Acid Lacks Cogency
A.J. Reyes and W.P. Leary

Losartan, Serum Uric Acid and Serum Potassium in the LIFE Study: An Independent Undertaking
A.J. Reyes and W.P. Leary

Nitric Oxide and Malondialdehyde Levels in Healthy Normotensive Subjects and Patients with Hypertension
B. Sosa-Canache, M.C. Armas-Padilla, M.J. Armas-Hernández, R. Cammarata, B. Pacheco, J. Guerrero, A.R. Carvajal and R. Hernández-Hernández

Fibrinolytic System in Normal and High Blood Pressure Subjects
R. Cammarata, M.J. Armas-Hernández, B. Pacheco,
B. Sosa-Canache, A.R. Carvajal, M.C. Armas-Padilla, J. Guerrero and R. Hernández-Hernández

Fibrinolytic System and AT-1 Receptor Blockade in Hypertension
B. Sosa-Canache, M.C. Armas-Padilla, R. Cammarata, B. Pacheco, A.R. Carvajal, M.J. Armas-Hernández, J. Guerrero and R. Hernández-Hernández

Plasma Homocysteine in Pregnant Women with or without Pre-Eclampsia
M. Vargas Guerrero, J. Haskour Sabeta, M. Chirino Camacho and D. Antequera

Acute Inflammatory Responses in Pregnancy-induced Hypertension
M. Díaz, O. Noguera, M. Carrizáles, A. Noguera and E. Torrealba

Effect of Fosinopril on Arterial Blood Pressure, Endothelin and Nitric Oxide in Hypertensive Patients
C. Castillo, C. Maiorana, A. Carvaja, N. López, Y. Alviarez, C. Contreras and R. Montoreano

Effect of Combined Therapy Losartan Plus Hydrochlorothiazide in “Non Dippers” Hypertensive Patients
R. Cammarata, B. Sosa-Canache, J. Guerrero, M.J. Armas-Hernández, M.C. Armas-Padilla, B. Pacheco and R. Hernández-Hernández

Nitric Oxide and AT-1 Receptor Blockade in Patients with Hypertension
B. Sosa-Canache, M.J. Armas-Hernández, R. Cammarata, M.C. Armas-Padilla, B. Pacheco, J. Guerrero and R. Hernández-Hernández


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