Coolum, Queensland, Australia,
September 11-14, 2005

Craniofacial Surgery 11

Proceedings of the Eleventh  International Congress of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery

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It was with great pleasure that I welcomed the participants to the XIth International Congress of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery which was held in Coolum, Queensland, Australia on September 11th – 14th, 2005. This was the first time the Congress had been held in Australia and indeed first time in the Southern Hemisphere. Coolum was chosen as an ideal venue to show Australian hospitality as well as our beautiful beaches and diverse flora and fauna. No visit to Australia would be complete without seeing a kangaroo or hearing the dawn chorus from the kookaburra.
This year’s meeting began on a sorrowful note with the announcement of the passing of our friend and colleague, the secretary-treasurer of the ISCFS, Cassio Raposo do Amaral. I would like to acknowledge his contribution to both the ISCFS and to the world of craniofacial surgery.
At the Coolum meeting we welcomed 224 registrants from 26 different countries, encompassing every major continent. The scientific program covered the categories of science, neurosurgery, orthodontics, aesthetic and orthognathic surgery, craniosynostoses, clefts, trauma, speech and psychology. The papers in these proceedings are published in the order that they were presented, along with the posters. There were many high quality papers and I would like to congratulate the participants on their contributions and for the animated discussions they provoked. The purpose of this gathering was to review what we are doing, how and why we do it and to discuss how to make improvements at both the organizational and scientific levels. I believe we have made significant advances.
I have also published my presidential report in these proceedings. In that report I wished to communicate some views I have on the history of craniofacial surgery, the founding and development of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery, parallels between the development of technique and of the organizational structure of this society, some comments about the new millennium and beyond and a report to you on my activities and the activities of your organization in the past two years. I wished to draw your attention to the six principles of delivery of health care to the facially deformed which have emerged from our deliberations and to make a few comments about the future.
My sincere thanks to all who attended the Congress; I am sure that for some of our Northern Hemisphere colleagues traveling to Australia seemed like traveling to the ends of the earth. We hope that you found the experience to be worthwhile. I would also like to thank our sponsors; many of whom have supported us over numerous Congresses.

David J David AC






Report from the President of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery 2003-2005
D.J. David



Chapter I
Basic Science

Noggin Suppression Enhances Osteogenesis of Murine Osteoblasts
D.C. Wan, J.H. Pomerantz, R.P. Nacamuli, J.B. Kim, H.M. Blau and M.T. Longaker

Noggin Inhibits Resynostosis in Craniosynostotic Rabbits
J.E. Losee, G.M. Cooper, T. Barbano, J. Caccamese, H. Papodoupoulous, B.J. Costello, C. Norbutt, M.I. Siegel, A.M. Moursi, J. Huard and M.P. Mooney

Embryologic Tissue Derivation Affects Post-Natal Calvarial Healing
D.C. Wan, Y.Y. Shi, M.T. Siedhoff, R.P. Nacamuli and M.T. Longaker

Expressions Levels of TGF-b1, FGF2 and their Receptors in Murine Cranial Sutures Analyzed by Real Time RT-PCR
A.K. Gosain and R. Schaefer

Somatic Mutations in Cranial Suture Cells
P.J. Anderson, T.C. Cox, T. Roscioli, L. Smithers, B. Powell and D.J. David

Reduced Lip Scar Formation in Hoxb13 Knockout Mice
L. Li and E.J. Stelnicki

Histologic and Ultrastructural Soft Tissue Changes Following Midface Distraction Osteogenesis
J. Weinzweig, K. Panter, M.B. Freeman, S. Schmidt, A. Harris, Q. Wu, A. Woo and R. Kim

Sonic Weld Rx: A Novel Method of Resorbable, Craniofacial Skeletal Osteosynthesis
E. Stelnicki, E. Arnaud, E. Pilling,
U. Eckelt, D. Schnitt, K. Igulada, Casi Stubbs and K. McHenry

Tissue Engineered Human Auricular Chondrocytes and Its Clinical Application for the Repair of Microtia
K. Imai, H. Yanaga, A. Yamada, T. Nomachi, T. Fujimoto and N. Morimoto

Cranioplasty of a Supersize Calvarial Defect in a Canine Model
C.R. Barceló, K.E. Salyer, El Gendler, D.G. Genecov, Y.C. Por, L.A. Opperman, M. El Salanti and R. Barceló-Iñiguez

Dynamic Spring Mediated Cranioplasty in a Swine Model with Resorbable Foot Plates
C. Sanger, A. Argenta, M. Morykwas, S. Glazier,
L. Argenta and L. David

Biodegradable Course of PLLA Plate System in 300 Cases of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
M. Kosaka, M. Kogure, Y. Mochizuki and H. Kamiishi

Determining the Most Effective Time Course of Retinoic Acid Priming for Murine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cell Osteogenesis
M.T. Siedhoff, R.P. Nacamuli, D.C. Wan, Y.Y. Shi and M.T. Longaker

Distinct Biologic Properties of FACS-Sorted Murine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells
M.T. Siedhoff, R.P. Nacamuli,
D.C. Wan, Y.Y. Shi, D. Bhattacharya, I.L Weissman and M.T. Longaker

Identifying Optimal Retinoic Acid Dose for Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cell Osteogenesis
D.C. Wan, Y.Y. Shi, M.T. Siedhoff, R.P. Nacamuli and M.T. Longaker

Mechanisms of Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells
Y.Y. Shi, R.P. Nacamuli, A. Salim,
N. Quarto, K.M. Lyons, D.C. Wan, C.M. Cowan, J.A. Helms and M.T. Longaker



Chapter II
Neurosurgery, Skull Base and Tumours

Craniopagus Conjoined Twins: An Evolution in Thought
D.A. Staffenberg and J.T. Goodrich

Skull Base Surgery – How May the Result Be Improved?
S. Tan, C. Davis, D. Glasson, M. Hunn and V. Balakrishnan

Surgical Concerns in Fibrous Dysplasia and McCune-Albright Syndrome
C.R. Dufresne, C. Cutler, J.S. Lee, J. Butman, E.J. FitzGibbon, H.J. Kim and M.T. Collins

Endovascular Compartmentalization: Surgical Resection of High Flow Craniofacial Vascular Malformations Is Facilitated by Sequential Embolization Procedures
D. Goldenberg, N. Alonso, J. Caldas and M. Ferreira

Cranial Vault Remodeling: Osteoinductive Replacement in the Growing Child
K.E. Salyer, D.G. Genecov, C.R. Barcelo, Y.C. Por and E. Gendler

Our Treatment Protocol for Postcraniotomy Wound Infections
T. Honda, S. Kobayashi, K. Kashiwa, W. Nasu and H. Fujiwara

Is Prophylactic Optic Canal Decompression Definitely Required for Adult Cases of Fronto-orbital Fibrous Dysplasia?
K. Satoh, T. Abe, Y. Tosa and K. Kadomatsu

Advanced Tumors of the Paranasal Sinuses: Where To Stop?
H. Jaju

The Application of Finite Element Analysis in the Treatment of Massive Occipital Meningomyelocele
J.C. Yu, J.L. Borke, M.R. Lee and P.S. Lam

Transfacial Approach to Basal Encephalocoeles
P.J. Anderson, E. Tan and D.J. David

Leforte 3 ‘Resection’
H. Jaju

Management of Congenital Teratoma of the Oropharyngeal Cavity
R.I.S. Winterton, G. Fabbrioni, J.L. Russell and M.I. Liddington

Characterization of the Craniofacial Effects of Fibrous Dysplasia and McCune-Albright Syndrome
C.M. Cutler, M.H. Kelly, B. Brillante, J.R. Kim, C.C. Brewer, C.K. Zalewski, J.S. Lee,
J.A. Butman, E.J. FitzGibbon, P.G. Robey, C.R. DuFresne and M.T. Collins

Single Stage Reconstruction of Complex Skull Defects with Intracranial Free Flaps
J. Grant, S. Grosso, B.L. Guthrie, J. Long and R.J. Fix

What Makes the Calvaria a Privileged Site for Bone Graft Survival?
S.A. Gosain, T.D. Santoro, L. Song, M.T.J. Amarante and A.K. Gosain



Chapter III

Cephalometric Profile Analysis of Soft Tissue Changes Following Surgical Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion
F. Goldenberg, D. Goldenberg, N. Alonso, M. Scanavini, E. Sannomiya and P. Câmara



Chapter IV
Aesthetic and Orthognathic Surgery

Feminization of the Mandibular Body. A Review of 688 Consecutive Cases
D.K. Ousterhout

Multi-Level Internal Midface Distraction
S.A. Schendel and A. Abdollahzedeh

Computer Assisted Orthognathic Surgery Using CT and Dental Casts
J. Chapuis, F. Langlotz, M. Blaeuer, W. Hallermann, A. Schramm and M. Caversaccio

The Role of Orbital Buttress for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Enophthalmos and Thyrotoxic Exophthalmos
A. Hirano

Midface Growth and Development in Mouth Breath Patient

Differential Gene Expression Between Scarless and Scarring Excisional Skin Wounds Is Revealed By Microarray Analysis
A. Colwell, M. Longaker, T. Krummel and H. Lorenz

Surgical Correction of Cryptotia Combined with Intraoperative Distension Using Isotonic Saline Injection and Rotation Flap Method
Hidetaka Watanabe and Tetsuji Uemura



Chapter V


Distraction of Patent Cranial Sutures
C. Davis and C. Lauritzen

Outcome Analysis of Spring Mediated Cranial Reconstruction for the Treatment of Scaphocephaly
L. David, C. Sanger, J. Thompson, S. Glazier and L. Argenta

Position of Maximum Biparietal Diameter in Cranial Vault Remodelling for Scaphocephaly
Prof. A. Madaree, Dr. W. Morris,
Dr. V. Nair and Dr. Le Roux

Predicting Outcome Factors for the Correction of Scaphocephaly: Age at Surgery or the Procedure!
Virender K. Singhal

Endoscopic vs. Open Sagittal Craniosynostosis Reconstruction: A Retrospective Comparison of Efficacy
E. Stelnicki, I. Heger, D.E. Schnitt, K. McHenry, K. Igulada and C. Stubbs

Evolution of Endoscopic Surgery in the Treatment of Unilateral Craniosynostosis
E. Stelnicki, I. Heger, D. Schnitt, K. McHenry,
K. Igulada and C. Stubbs

The Aesthetic and Functional Changes in Plagiocephaly Treated with Distractions Osteogenesis
F. Molina

Anthropometric Evaluation of Preoperative Craniofacial Dysmorphology in Unilateral Coronal Synostosis
J.C. Kolar, K.E. Salyer, J.A. Fearon and D.G. Genecov

The Influence of the Operative Technique on the Growth of the Anterior Cranial Fossa Following Frontoorbital Advancement
C. Klein

Correction in Adulthood of Unoperated Non Syndromic Craniosynostosis
D. Marchac, D. Renier and E. Arnaud

3D Ultrasound in Visualizing Fetal Cranial Sutures and Fontanels
C. Dikkeboom, N. Roelfsema, L. van Adrichem and J. Wladimiroff

True Lambdoid Craniosynostosis: Results of Long-Term Surgical and Conservative Therapy
J.M. Smartt, Jr., R.R. Reid, D.J. Singh and S.P. Bartlett

Thirty-six Frontofacial Monobloc Advancements with Distraction in Children: Evaluation of Complications and Results
E. Arnaud, D. Marchac and D. Renier

Halo-distraction of the LeFort III in Syndromic Craniosynostosis:
A Long-term Assessment
J. Fearon

Respiratory Outcome in Faciosynostotic Patients: A Comparison Between Le Fort III and Monobloc Advancement with Distraction
I. Mathijssen, E. Arnaud, D. Marchac, E. Mireau and D. Renier

Prospective Audit of Blood Use in Synostosis Surgery in 4 Designated Craniofacial Centres in the UK
C. Duncan, D. Mowatt, E. Pappa, E. Elgamel, E. Carver, R. Evans, D. Dunaway, M. Caswell and F. Potter

Preoperative Screening for Coagulopathy Using PT and PTT in Patients Requiring Primary Cranial Vault Remodeling
D.G. Genecov, Y.C. Por, C.R. Barcelo, K.E. Salyer, A.F. Mulne and A.B. Morad

Outcome Analysis of Passive Helmet Therapy for Positional Plagiocephaly as Measured by a Three Dimensional Surface Scanning Laser
J.T. Thompson, L.R. David, C. Sanger, B. Wood and L.C. Argenta

FGFR3 P250R Mutation is a Marker for an Increased Reoperation Rate in Coronal Craniosynostosis
G. Thomas, J. Byren, S. Greenwood, R. Evans, J. Middleton, P. Richards, A. Wilkie and S. Wall

Outcome of Surgical Correction of Craniosynostosis Using Fronto-orbital Advancement
D.K. Dhariwal, A. Monaghan, S. Sgouros, H. Nishikawa, G. Solanki and M.S. Dover

Anterior Fontanelle Morphology in Unilateral Coronal Synostosis: A Clear Clinical (Non-radiological) Sign for the Diagnosis of Frontal Plagiocephaly
J.K. Tomlinson and A.F. Breidahl

Ophthalmic Surveillance of Children with Craniosynostosis
B.C. Walters, A. Liasis and K.K. Nischal

Postoperative Use of Cranial Remodeling Devices
J.K. Pomatto-Hertz, T.R. Littlefield, R.M. Hess, S.P. Beals, E.F. Joganic and K.H. Manwaring

A Comparison of Similarity between Clinical, Radiographic and Photographic Cranial Indices in the Management of Children with Craniosynostosis
Z.S. Shaikh, D.K. Dhariwal, I. Sharp, P. Davies, H. Nishikawa, M.S. Dover and G. Solanki

Diagnostic Strategies for the Evaluation of Asymmetrie in Infancy – A Review
L. van Vlimmeren, P. Helders, L. van Adrichem and R. Engelbert

Gene Expression Profile of the WNT Family in Cranial Suture Development
P. Malladi, Y. Xu, R. Nusse and M. Longaker

Use of the NightForm™ Positioning Mattress to Treat Deformational Plagiocephaly
E. Stelnicki, D. Schnitt, I. Heger, K. McHenry, C. Stubbs and K. Igualada 265
Analysis of Cartilages in the Developing Skull Vault
K.A. Lenton, J.A. Helms and M.T. Longaker

Fgfr1 Gain-of-Function Results in Premaxillomaxillary Suture Fusion and Mid-face Retrusion
K.A. Lenton, J.A. Helms and M.T. Longaker

Optimal Camera Position in 3D-photogrammetry
L. van Adrichem and J. Riphage

Analysis of Operative and Non-operative Changes of Skull Morphology by 3D Photogrammetry
L. van Adrichem and J. Riphage

Quantitative Transcriptional Analysis of Fusing and Nonfusing Cranial Suture Complexes in Mice
R.P. Nacamuli, H.M. Song, T.D. Fang, K.D. Fong, J.A. Mathy, Y.Y. Shi, A. Salim, D.C. Wan and M.T. Longaker

Outcome Analysis of the Treatment of Posterior Brachycephaly with Prefabricated Helmet Therapy
C. Sanger, A. Argenta, J. Simpson, L. David and L. Argenta

The Management of Deformational Plagiocephaly: A Randomized, Prospective Analysis
A. Rozzelle, H. Gilmer-Hill, J. Pilitsis, J. Kowaleski and A. Canady

Comparison Between Distraction and Conventional Procedure for the Treatment of Craniosynostosis; Outcomes and Opinions
S. Kyutoku, T. Inagaki, Y. Yamanouchi, T. Inoue and Y. Tomino

Intracranial Volume in different Apert genotypes
P.J. Anderson, D.J. Netherway, T.C. Cox, T. Roscioli and D.J. David

Micro CT Assessment of the Structure of Cranial Sutures in Health and Disease
P. Anderson, D. Netherway, P. Self and D. David

Intracranial Volume in Metopic Synostosis
P.J. Anderson, D.J. Netherway, A.H. Abbott and D.J. David

Genotype-phenotype Correlation in Apert Syndrome
K. McGlaughlin, P. Anderson, D. Netherway, T. Roscioli, A. Yusof, B. Carney, R. Coxon and D. David

Intracranial Volume in Non-syndromal Craniosynostosis
D. Netherway, P. Anderson and D. David

Visual Outcomes of Apert Patients at Visual Maturation
J.J. Khong, P.J. Anderson, M. Hammerton, D. Selva and D.J. David



Chapter VI

Early Outcome of Palatoplasty with Tension-free Nasal Lining Repair
J.H. Grant, P.D. Ray and A. Espinosa

The Challenges of Cleft Palate Repair: Fistula Prevention
H.W. Losken, J.A. van Aalst, S.S. Teotia, S.B. Dean, K.S. Uhrich and C.S. Hultman

Facial Growth and the Need for Secondary Surgical Procedures After Primary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Patients
J.A. van Aalst, R.R. Hathaway, B.L. Eppley, R.J. Havlik, M. Grisell and A.M. Sadove

Maxillary Distraction with a New Intra-Oral Face Bow Device
A.J. Abdollahzadeh, D. Kahn and S.A. Schendel

Marionette traction for Le Fort I Maxillary Halo Dstraction in Cleft Patients
K. Satoh, N. Mitsukawa and T. Uemura

The Concept of Aesthetic Units for the Correction of Facial Clefts
F. Ortiz Monasterio

Mandibular Distraction in Neonates: Our 5 Year Experience
A. Denny

A Retrospective Review of 203 Patients with Hemifacial Microsomia: Implications for Management
D. Johnson, M. Nugent, E. Tan and D.J. David

Facial Clefts – Experience with 251 Cases
A. Madaree and W.M.M. Morris

The Craniomaxillofacial Management of Opitz GBBB Syndrome
P.J. Anderson, T.C. Cox, T. Roscioli, L. Smithers, B. Powell, D.J. David, S.Y. Parashar and N.R. McLean

Tracheostomy versus Mandibular Distraction in Patients with Pierre Robin Sequence
S.B. Dean, R. Rahbar, A.F. Drake, M. Bassim, K.S. Uhrich, H.W. Losken and J.A. van Aalst

An In Vivo Mouse Excisional Wound Model of Scarless Healing
A. Colwell, T. Krummel, M. Longaker and H. Lorenz

Early Gestation Fetal Scarless Wounds Have Less Lysyl Oxidase Expression
A. Colwell, T. Krummel, M. Longaker and H. Lorenz



Chapter VII

Combination of Transconjunctival and Intraoral Approaches for Repair of Zygomatic Fracture without Facial Skin Incision
T. Uemura and H. Watanabe

Approaching the Orbitozygomatic Fracture Through Minimum Skin Incisions Assisted by an Endoscope
S. Kobayashi, H. Higuchi, T. Honda and K. Kashiwa

Late Complication of Paediatric Mandibular Fractures
P. Anderson and D. David

Biomaterials in Craniofacial Reconstruction: Indications and Applications
A.K. Gosain and J.S. Arneja

Use of Calcium Phosphate Bone Paste for Deformity of Post Craniofacial Trauma
M. Akimoto, S. Kuroda and H. Hyaksoku

Osteoplasty in Disseminated Calvarial Defects Treated with Autologous Adipose Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Fibrin Glue: Report of Two Cases
H.-P. Howaldt, S. Lendeckel, A. Jödicke, P. Christophis, K. Heidinger and D. Kuhn

wnt-4 Expression Is Increased in Fibroblasts After TGF-beta1 Stimulation and During Fetal and Postnatal Wound Repair
A. Colwell, T. Krummel, M. Longaker and H. Lorenz



Chapter VIII
Speech, Psychology and Organisation

National Craniofacial Service Standards in England
W. Gutteridge

Benchmarking Questionnaire for Craniosynostosis
E. Arnaud and I. Mathijssen

Postoperative Mental Outcome for Unilateral Coronal Suture Synostosis
I. Mathijssen, E. Arnaud, E. Lajeunie, D. Marchac and D. Renier

The Experience of Living with a Craniofacial Condition; Child, Adolescent and Parent Perspectives
R. Roberts and R. Shute

Rare Facial Clefts: Evaluation of Psychological and Physical Outcome
S. Versnel and I. Mathijssen

Teasing and Victimization? It’s Rarely Simple!
P. Carroll

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